Alliance rupture repair: A meta-analysis.

A rupture is a deterioration in the therapeutic alliance, manifested by a disagreement between the patient and therapist on treatment goals, a lack of collaboration on therapeutic tasks, or a strain in their emotional bond. We present the most frequently used measures of alliance ruptures and clinical examples to illustrate their repair. To examine the relation of rupture repairs to outcome, and the impact of rupture resolution training on outcome, we conducted two meta-analyses. In the first meta-analysis, we examined 11 studies (1,314 patients) that examined the relation between rupture repair episodes and patient treatment outcomes. Results yielded an effect size of r = .29, d = .62, 95% confidence interval [.10, .47], p = .003, indicating a moderate relation between rupture resolution and positive patient outcome. Our second meta-analysis examined the impact of rupture resolution training or supervision on patient outcome. We examined 6 studies (276 trainees/supervisees) that compared the outcomes of trainees who received rupture resolution training with a comparison group. Results did not find a significant relation, r = .11, d = .22, 95% confidence interval [−.09, .30], p = .28. Moderator analyses indicated that the relation between training and outcome was stronger when the sample included fewer patients with personality disorders, when the training was more closely aligned with cognitive behavioral therapy than psychodynamic therapy, and when the treatment was brief. The article concludes with limitations of the research, diversity considerations, and research-informed therapeutic practices for repairing ruptures in ways that contribute to good treatment outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)