Development of the Self-Forgiveness Dual-Process Scale.

Progress in the scientific study of self-forgiveness reveals a need for (a) integration of the extant self-forgiveness literature with general psychological theory, (b) development of measures that reflect nuanced conceptualizations of self-forgiveness, (c) better understanding of the impact of self-forgiveness on personal and interpersonal functioning, and (d) development of evidence-based clinical applications of self-forgiveness. Accordingly, we conceptualized self-forgiveness within the framework of Social Cognitive Theory and developed the Self-Forgiveness Dual-Process Scale to assess value reorientation (VRO) and esteem restoration (ERS) following perceived interpersonal offense. In Study 1, we identified the hypothesized 2-factor structure in a sample of university students (N = 191). For Study 2, we used an independent sample (N = 100) to replicate the factor structure and provide initial evidence of construct validity by exploring associations of value reorientation and esteem restoration with established measures of self-forgiveness, self-punishment, and self-exoneration. In Study 3, we recruited a third sample (N = 66) to assess contributions of value reorientation and esteem restoration to explain variance in offense-related rumination beyond that explained by an existing measure of state self-forgiveness. Overall, findings supported conceptualization of self-forgiveness according to processes of value reorientation and esteem restoration, distinguished self-forgiveness from other responses to wrongdoing, and revealed the unique impacts of value reorientation and esteem restoration on functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)