Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men: Scale development and psychometric properties.

The Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men (GRSAM) was developed to assess the frequency and stress level of gendered racism perceived by Asian American men. The development of the new measure was grounded in the Intersectional Fusion Paradigm. This paradigm explains individuals’ experiences of discrimination based on unique combinations of multiple interlocking identities that individuals experience simultaneously. In mixed samples of college students and community adults, GRSAM’s factor structure as well as evidence of convergent validity, criterion-related validity, discriminant validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability was examined. Exploratory factor analyses revealed three dimensions of GRSAM: Psychological Emasculation, Perceived Undesirable Partner, and Perceived Lack of Leadership. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a bifactor model was a better fit to the data than a correlated three-factor model and a higher-order model. Results of correlation and regression analyses further provided evidence for different aspects of construct validity and internal consistency. Both the Frequency and Stress versions of GRSAM positively predicted psychological distress and somatic symptoms above and beyond the effects of general racism experienced by Asian Americans and masculine gender role stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)